Grupul Medical Romgermed, unul dintre cei mai importanti jucatori din domeniul medical, aflat in continua dezvoltare, isi extinde continuu echipa de specialisti: Manager Resurse Umane, Responsabil Managementul Calitatii, Asistent Medical – Clinica, Medici primari/specialisti, Medic de laborator, Biolog/Chimist/ Biochimist.
Considerand omul ca principala resursa a organizatiei,Romgermedcauta, dincolo de profesionisti orientati spre rezultate si calitate, oameni valorosi, pasionati de domeniul in care activeaza, animati de respect si inalt simt de raspundere.
A study finds that within just a few decades, until 2040, more than 300 million men and women worldwide will be at high risk of fracture – placing a serious burden on healthcare systems, especially in Asia.
A study from the University of Southampton and Sheffield Medical School in the UK projects a dramatic increase in the burden of fragility fractures within the next three decades. By 2040, approximately 319 million people will be at high risk of fracture – double the numbers considered at high risk today.
In this first study to estimate the global burden of disease in terms of fracture probability, the researchers quantified the number of individuals worldwide aged 50 years or more at high risk of fracture in 2010 and projected figures for 2040. The calculations were based on data derived from FRAX, the most widely used risk assessment algorithm.
A threshold of high fracture probability was set at the age-specific 10-year probability of a major fracture (clinical vertebral, forearm, humeral or hip fracture) equivalent to that of a woman with a BMI of 24 kg/m2, a prior fragility fracture and no other clinical risk factors. The identical age-specific threshold was used for men. The prevalence of high risk was determined worldwide, and by continent, and applied to the demography for each country.
Key findings were:
– In 2010, at total of 158 million people (137 million women and 21 million men aged 50 years or more) had a fracture probability at or above the high-risk threshold.
– Globally 18.2 percent of women and 3.1 percent of men had a fracture probability above the fracture threshold.
– Worldwide the number of individuals at high risk of fracture is expected to double by 2040, increasing to approximately 319 million. Increases are noted for all regions, but particularly marked in Africa and Latin America.
– Asia will have the highest proportion of the global burden, with 73 million women and 11 million men at high risk.
Prof. John Kanis, President, International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and co-author of the study stated, „Due to demographic changes, we will see an enormous increase in the aged population worldwide. This new data suggests that individuals with a high probability of osteoporotic fractures will comprise a very significant disease burden to society in the coming decades. Healthcare systems, particularly in Asia, should prepare for a two-fold increase in the number of fracture patients, and with it increased long-term disability and dependency in the older population.”
3D printing is revolutionizing the production of lightweight structures, soft robots and flexible electronics, but the technology struggles with complex, multimaterial integration.
To print a flexible device, including the electronics, a 3D printer must be able to seamlessly transition from a flexible material that moves with your joints for wearable applications, to a rigid material that accommodates the electronic components. It would also need to be able to embed electrical circuitry using multiple inks of varying conductivity and resistivity, precisely switching between them. And, it would be ideal to do all of this without the stopping the printing process.
The ability to integrate disparate materials and properties within printed objects is the next frontier in 3D printing.
Towards this objective, Harvard researchers have designed new multimaterial printheads that mix and print concentrated viscoelastic inks that allow for the simultaneous control of composition and geometry during printing. Using active mixing and fast-switching nozzles, these novel printheads change material composition on the fly and could pave the way for entirely 3D-printed wearable devices, soft robots, and electronics.
The research was led by Jennifer A. Lewis, the Hansjörg Wyss Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and a Core Faculty Member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard. The work was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Mixing complex fluids is fundamental for printing a broad range of materials. But most mixing approaches are passive, wherein two streams of fluids converge into a single channel where they undergo diffusive mixing. This method works well with low-viscosity fluids, but is ineffective with high-viscosity fluids, like gels, especially in small volumes over short timescales.
To address this challenge, a new multimaterial printhead based on active mixing was designed by Lewis, along with Thomas Ober, postdoctoral research scholar at the Wyss Institute; and Daniele Foresti, the Society in Science Branco Weiss postdoctoral fellow. The active mixer efficiently mixes a wide range of complex fluids by using a rotating impeller inside a microscale nozzle.
„Passive mixtures don’t guarantee perfectly mixed materials, especially highly viscous inks,” said Ober, the paper’s first author. „We developed a rational framework – and verified it experimentally – for designing active microfluidic mixers that can mix a wide variety of materials.”
The team used this knowledge to create active mixing printheads for patterning heterogeneous materials in three dimensions.
The research team demonstrated several uses of their active mixing technology. They showed that silicone elastomers can be seamlessly printed into gradient architectures composed of soft and rigid regions. These structures may find potential application in flexible electronics, wearable devices, and soft robotics. They also printed reactive materials, such as two-part epoxies, which typically harden quickly when the two parts are combined. Finally, they showed that conductive and resistive inks could be mixed on demand to embed electrical circuitry inside 3D printed objects.
„The recent work by the Lewis Group is a significant advancement to the field of additive manufacturing,” said Christopher Spadaccini, Director of the Center for Engineered Materials, Manufacturing and Optimization at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. „By allowing for the mixing of two highly viscous materials on the fly, the promise of mixed material systems with disparate mechanical and functional properties becomes much more realistic. Before, this was really only a concept. This work will be foundational for applications which required integrated electrical and structural materials.”
Lewis’ lab also recently designed another printhead that can rapidly switch between multiple inks within a single nozzle, eliminating the structural defects that often occur during the start-and-stop process of switching materials.
„This printhead design eliminates the need to align multiple nozzles as well as start and stop ink flow on demand,” said James Hardin, first author of a recently published paper in Advanced Materials. This paper was co-authored by Ober, research fellow Alexander Valentine, and Lewis.
„Together, these active mixing and switching printheads provide an important advance for multimaterial 3D printing,” said Lewis. „They allow one to programmably control both materials composition and structure at the microscale, opening new avenues for creating materials by design.”